AMA Citation & Reference Style

Citation Tips

Citation Tips


What are the latest changes in referencing internet language?


As of 11th edition, AMA recommends lowercase internet and website, as well as removing the hyphen from email. Other e- compounds retain their hyphen, e.g. e-cigarette and e-book. Capitalize the word that follows e- in title case, e.g. "State Restrictions on e-Cigarette Use."


In your reference list, cite an image the same way you would cite a website.

Author(s). Title of specific item cited (or, if unavailable, give the name of the organization responsible for the site). Name of Web Site. URL. Publication date. Updated date.  Accessed date.

TIP! If you do not know the author of an image, start with the title of the image. If the image does not have a title, provide a brief description of the image.


Protocol Snow. Harvard Medical School classroom. Flickr. Published June 15, 2009. Accessed July 23, 2020.



Thanks to the George Washington University Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library for the content of this guide, which is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.

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