AMA Citation & Reference Style

Citation Tips

Citation Tips


What are the latest changes in referencing internet language?


As of 11th edition, AMA recommends lowercase internet and website, as well as removing the hyphen from email. Other e- compounds retain their hyphen, e.g. e-cigarette and e-book. Capitalize the word that follows e- in title case, e.g. "State Restrictions on e-Cigarette Use."

Web sites

Web sites:

  • Author(s) - (or, if no author is available, the name of the organization responsible for the site).
  • Title of the specific item cited (if none is given, use the name of the organization responsible for the site).
  • Name of the website. (use "website" not "Web site")
  • Published  date (if available)
  • Updated date (if available)
  • Accessed date
  • URL [provide URL and verify that the link still works as close as possible to publication].

Tip: Include as much relevant information as possible 

Example: (author)

Rainie L. The rise of the e-patient. Pew Research Center Internet and the  American Life Project website. October 7, 2009. Accessed January 11, 2012.

Example: (no author)

Air Pollution and Respiratory Health. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Updated January 9, 2012. Accessed March 2, 2012.


Thanks to the George Washington University Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library for the content of this guide, which is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.

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